What Has Led to the Strikes on Ukraine?

The world fears as tensions rise between Russia and Ukraine. Photo by Al Mayadeen English.

The world fears as tensions rise between Russia and Ukraine. Photo by Al Mayadeen English.

The Russo-Ukrainian War has been an ongoing conflict since 2014; however, the tensions have escalated. The first cause of the war was the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation on Feb. 20, 2014. Many surrounding countries feared a war that would put their forces on the frontlines. As a result, the Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe (OSCE) created the Minsk Agreements.


The Minsk Protocol was the first of the Minsk Agreements in 2014, and the provisions of it included:

  • Prisoner exchanges
  • Deliveries of humanitarian aid
  • The withdrawal of heavy weapons


It proved to be a failure, as both countries violated these provisions, leading to the creation of Minsk II, which the OSCE announced to the world in 2015. The 13 points of the agreement were:


  • Immediate and comprehensive ceasefire
  • Withdrawal of all heavy weapons by both sides
  • Monitoring and verification by the OSCE
  • To start a dialogue on interim self-government for the Donetsk and Luhansk regions under Ukrainian law and acknowledge their special status by parliamentary resolution
  • A pardon and amnesty for people involved in the fighting
  • An exchange of hostages and prisoners
  • Provision of humanitarian assistance
  • Resumption of socio-economic ties, including pensions
  • Restoration of full control of the state border by the government of Ukraine
  • Withdrawal of all foreign armed formations, military equipment and mercenaries
  • Constitutional reform in Ukraine including decentralization, with specific mention of Donetsk and Luhansk
  • Elections in Donetsk and Luhansk on terms to be agreed with their representatives
  • Intensifying the work of a Trilateral Contact Group comprising representatives of Russia, Ukraine and the OSCE


The agreement also proved to be a failure; however, it halted the wartime tensions until February 2022. Many countries, such as the US, are urging Ukraine and Russia to look over the agreement and return to the policies to end the separatist war.